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level]; stomata anomocytic, (cuticular waxes as parallel platelets); colleters 0. (Magallón & Castillo 2009), (124-)117(-108) (Givnish et al.
DIOSCOREALES PANDANALES] [LILIALES [ASPARAGALES COMMELINIDS]: nucellar cap 0; endosperm nuclear [but variation in most orders].
All groups below are crown groups, nearly all are extant. Aphids do not probe such cells, rather, they prefer the thinner walled "normal" sieve tubes which have more concentrated sugars (Botha 2013). 2014b), although these relationships are not always obtained (Givnish et al. Bromeliaceae and Typhaceae are also often placed as successive basal branches with respect to other Poales (Givnish et al. Collinson and van Bergen (2004) found similar chemical signatures in fruits of extant and fossil representatives of both genera. Emergent (floating) aquatic; stomatal subsidiary cells with intersecting oblique divisions; inflorescence as globose heads; P 1-6, when 3, median member adaxial; staminate flowers: anthers extrorse-latrorse; pollen mixed with raphides; carpellate flowers: , stigma papillate; fruit a spongy drupe, with micropylar plug, P persistent; testa membranous; perisperm with oil; phanomer [unifacial, ± assimilating], hypophyll quite well developed.
Characters mentioned are those of the immediate common ancestor of the group,  contains explanatory material, () features common in clade, exact status unclear. The distribution of these distinctive sieve tubes is unclear. 2005, 2008 [but rooting], 2010b: quite strong support, 2016b; also Graham et al. Within remaining Poales there are some well-supported clades, the Xyridaceae, Juncaceae, and Poaceae groups, although the exact composition of the first clade in particular remains somewhat unclear.
Abscisic acid, L- and D-methionine distinguished metabolically; pro- and metaphase spindles acentric; class 1 KNOX genes expressed in sporangium alone; sporangium wall 4≤ cells across [≡ eusporangium], tapetum , secreting sporopollenin, which obscures outer white-line centred lamellae, columella , developing from endothecial cells; stomata , on sporangium, anomocytic, cell lineage that produces them with symmetric divisions [perigenous]; underlying similarities in the development of conducting tissue and of rhizoids/root hairs; spores trilete; shoot meristem patterning gene families expressed; MIKC, MI genes, post-transcriptional editing of chloroplast genes; gain of three group II mitochondrial introns, mitochondrial trn S(gcu) and trn N(guu) genes 0. Host-plants of of the ca 165 species of reed beetles, Chrysomelidae-Donaciinae, noted for the larvae being able to live under water, are scattered in Poales in particular, especially in Typhaceae, Juncaceae and Cyperaceae (Kölsch & Pedersen 2008: much discussion on the age and evolution of the group). 2006), while Typhaceae are sister to all other Poales in the phylogenomic analysis of Mc Kain et al. Other than these two families, Rapateaceae appear to be sister to remaining Poales in some analyses (e.g. 2004), albeit with little support (see also Barrett & Davis 2011; Barrett et al. Thus in the complete plastome analysis of Ruhfel et al.